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From Sherman Library's Collections

Articles highlighting Sherman Library's collections and the history of Sherman Library & Gardens.

When Nobody Bought $100 Lots in Corona del Mar

Paul Wormser - Wednesday, November 08, 2017
The oldest structure at Sherman Library & Gardens is a single-room adobe house built by Lawrence and Pauline Lushbaugh in the late 1930s.  The Lushbaugh’s story is interesting:  the young

Lawrence and Pauline Lushbaugh in front of their house, which is now part of Sherman Library & Gardens.

couple bought a plot of land, and taught themselves how to make fired-adobe brinks to build their own home. Yet if a single element of the story fascinates people, it is this:  the Lushbaughs bought the land for their house from the City of Newport Beach for $600.00, an amount that would not cover the cost of a square foot of a typical house today.

Selling land in Corona del Mar in the years before the World War II was challenging at best. Lots that now sell for millions of dollars were priced at a few hundred dollars, remaining unsold for years.  An aerial photograph in Sherman Library’s collections is graphic evidence.  Taken in 1940, the photograph shows a scattering of homes and business in the flower streets.  Whole blocks were nearly vacant. In fact, in 1940 the City of Newport Beach owned a considerable number of Corona del Mar “tax lots,” which it acquired when the owners failed to pay property taxes.

 Aerial photograph of Corona del Mar, 1940. 

The man who first envisioned Corona del Mar – and named it – was George E. Hart, a Los Angeles real estate salesman.  In 1904, Hart bought 706 acres of land for $125.00/acre from The Irvine Company.  One 1904 advertisement announced people could buy lots starting at $100. At the time he made the deal, Hart expected that the Pacific Electric Railway, the so-called Red Cars, would extend as far as Corona del Mar.    However, when the railway was extended south in 1906, the terminus was the Balboa Peninsula, not Corona del Mar.  Corona del Mar had a geography problem – the only way to the new subdivision was by boat from Balboa or by a road owned by The Irvine Company.  When it was clear that the Pacific Electric would not reach Corona del Mar, Hart tried to cut his losses by deeding back 359 acres to The Irvine Company.  In 1907, he built the Hotel Del Mar at the corner of present-day Carnation and Seaview, to encourage people to visit – and he hoped – buy land. By 1915, Hart was ready to wind up his Corona del Mar adventure.  

Hart sold his remaining land, including the Hotel Del Mar to the F. D. Cornell Co. The F. D. Cornell Co. tried to rename the tract Balboa Palisades, to take advantage of better-know Balboa. The Hotel Del Mar was renamed the Palisades Tavern. But it did not work.  By 1920, Corona del Mar had fewer than 50 homes. Moreover, those few residents resisted the new Balboa Palisades name, which was later abandoned.  
 The Hotel Del Mar, later known as the Palisades Tavern and then the Balboa Palisades Club. Courtesy Sherman Library

The F. D. Cornell Co. sold the Palisades Tavern in 1925 to a group of investors who formed the Balboa Palisades Club.  The investors promoted the club in the characteristically overblown language of real estate ads at the time.  “Situated atop the Balboa Palisades will be the new Club house as planned, commanding an unsurpassed view . . . a tumbling, sapphire sea breaking upon a beach dotted with multicolored tents and parasols, and people, young and old, pleasure bent in the life-giving, golden sunshine . . . here at this rainbow’s end is the Balboa Palisades Club. Here discriminating families may enjoy its many advantages in safety and seclusion.” 

The investors probably expected a real estate boom once Coast Highway opened in 1926. But, the boom did not materialize, and within a few years the Great Depression took hold.  It would not be until after World War II that Corona del Mar land would sell at a premium.

Preserving the History of Newport Beach

Paul Wormser - Thursday, September 07, 2017
For the last 50 years, Sherman Library has been collecting valuable historical materials about the history of the Pacific Southwest. One of the strengths of the collection is the history of Newport Beach.   For the first time, information about these collections is now available in a Guide to Newport Beach Historical Collections in Sherman Library.

How Jamboree Road Got its Name

Paul Wormser - Wednesday, September 06, 2017

Every day countless people drive on Jamboree Road in Newport Beach without knowing the origin of the street’s name. Today it is hard to image that 45,000 Boy Scouts once camped on the spot now occupied by Fashion Island.  But, in 1953, when Irvine Ranch hosted the Third National Jamboree, that was the case.


Pamphlet advertising the Jamboree.  
Sherman Library Collections.
  Jamboree commemorative patch.  
Sherman Library Collections.

The Jamboree was an extraordinary local event.  For a single week in July 1953, a full-scale city, larger than the permanent population of Newport Beach materialized.  Scouts attending the Jamboree pitched more than 25,000 tents on the site bordered by present-day MacArthur Blvd., Coast Highway, Back Bay Drive and University Drive.  Irvine Road, which ran through the site, was later renamed Jamboree.

Well in advance of the scouts’ arrival, planners surveyed the site and installed the infrastructure. Workers built more than 8 miles of roads, installed over 36 miles of telephone and electrical lines and constructed a water works capable of pumping 18 million gallons of water per day.  The encampment also had its own telephone exchange, short wave radio station, hospital. employing 164 doctors, fire department consisting of four companies, and police department with a staff of 150 officers. By the time the Scouts arrived, the site also included a theater, store, zoo, bus line and a parking lot capable of holding 16,000 cars. 


Scouts attending a performance at the theater.

Sherman Library Collection. 

The boys could select from many traditional camping activities like archery and pottery making.  For many, no doubt, a highlight was taking a bus to the beach.  An enormous theater offered formal entertainment, including visits from Hollywood stars, such as Danny Kaye and Debbie Reynolds.  Even Vice President Richard Nixon made an appearance, flipping pancakes for a few troops.

For people wanting to know more about the Jamboree, Sherman Library has a collection of publications, photographs and newspaper clippings and other items – some of which you see here – available for people to use. 

A Most Unusual Artifact

Paul Wormser - Wednesday, September 06, 2017
Perhaps the most unique artifact in Sherman Library’s collection is an antler-handled sterling silver loving cup, with the inscription, “To General M.H. Sherman in Grateful Remembrance of all his kindness on April 18th 1906.”   

That date – April 18, 1906 – many will recognize as the day of the great San Francisco earthquake.  At 5:12 AM the city was devastated by a massive earthquake, which then ignited fires that burned for three days, largely destroying the city. 

At the time of the earthquake, Moses H. Sherman, like many others in Los Angeles, had family in San Francisco – in Sherman’s case his wife and daughters.  Sometime after 8:30 AM, word of the calamity reached Los Angeles. People went to the train stations to buy tickets for San Francisco, but in the initial hours after the earthquake, the tracks were closed for inspection.  Even the justices of the California Supreme Court, who were in session in Los Angeles, but lived in San Francisco, were unsuccessful in convincing the Southern Pacific Railroad to run a special train for them. 

Moses H. Sherman, a man of action and resources, resolved to make his way to San Francisco. Within two hours of news of the earthquake, Sherman had chartered an engine from the Southern Pacific to pull his personal car to San Francisco. The Justices of the California Supreme Court eagerly accepted Sherman’s invitation to join him, as did Ulysses S. Webb, Attorney General of California, and Charles F. Curry, Secretary of State of California.  Twenty-eight officials and friends rode on Sherman’s train, which started its long  journey at 10:30 AM. 

By 8:20 PM Sherman’s party arrived in Fresno, where they sent an exclusive dispatch to the Los Angeles Times indicating that they expected to reach Oakland by 1:00 AM on April 19th. In fact, it was 4:00 AM before the group reached Oakland.  Sherman was later quoted saying “The red glare across the bay told us that the earlier reports had not been exaggerated.” A ferry took the group across the bay to the burning city. 

Sherman and the other members of his party were able to locate their family members –  all unharmed.  For two days, Sherman stayed in the burning city. On his return, he recalled his experiences. “Market Street as I had known it was only a memory” he was quoted as saying. Ever the businessman and Los Angeles booster, Sherman spoke mostly of San Francisco’s business community, “Those men calmly discussed the details of new business blocks before the flames had died away in the old.”  Not without a little hopefulness, he also noted “Wiping out those San Francisco hotels is bound to make Los Angeles the greatest tourist city in the world.” 

About six months after Sherman’s trip to San Francisco, in late September 1906, a group of San Francisco businessmen visited Los Angeles.  Sherman hosted a sightseeing excursion in his private rail car for the group, which included banker William H. Crocker. After the sightseeing trip, the group invited Sherman to accompany them to the Bolsa Chica Gun Club for dinner. To his surprise, he was the guest of honor at the dinner. J. T. Wilson presented Sherman with the loving cup on behalf of the justices of the California Supreme Court.  The Los Angeles Times’ described the night: “Gen. M. H. Sherman had the surprise of his life last night – a surprise so pleasant that it will make him happier all his days, and at the same time so touching that he broke down and wept like a child.” The cup, which was made by Shreve & Co. of San Francisco, had in addition to the inscription on the front, facsimiles of the signatures of each of the Supreme Court Justices. 

But this was not the last token of thanks that Sherman would receive for his actions on the day of the earthquake.  Exactly one year later, passengers on Sherman’s train gathered together again in Los Angeles at the California Club to honor Sherman.  According to the Los Angeles Times, “Over it all ran a ripple of compliments toward Gen. Sherman for the happy thought and the prompt, energetic action that made the night ride to San Francisco possible. Gen. Sherman sat at the head of the table between Gen. [Harrison Grey] Otis and Chief Justice Beatty, blushing furiously; he protested that it was worse than the night ride through the San Joaquin Valley.” 

When Sherman returned to his home later that night, he found upon his desk a sterling silver pitcher inscribed with words almost identical to that of the loving cup: “To General M.H. Sherman with Grateful Remembrance of all his kindness April 18th 1906.”  The cup also has the names of nine of the passengers who rode with Sherman on that eventful night.

M. H. Sherman, Arnold Haskell, and the Hollywood Sign

Paul Wormser - Wednesday, September 06, 2017
What does the Hollywood sign have to do with Sherman Library & Gardens?  Quite a lot, as it turns out.  The Hollywood sign started out as the Hollywoodland sign, an advertising gimmick designed to attract buyers to a new luxury housing subdivision: Hollywoodland.  Dubbed “the supreme achievement in community building,” the subdivision land was owned by Moses H. Sherman, namesake of Sherman Library & Gardens.  In 1922, Sherman put together the Hollywoodland syndicate (as business partnerships were often called then) which included his business partner and brother-in-law Eli P. Clark, Los Angeles Times publisher Harry Chandler, and developers Tracy Shoults and Sydney H. Woodruff.  The Hollywoodland sign cost the syndicate $23,501.32. While the sign proved popular, sales of lots in Hollywoodland were lackluster.  The cost of building in the Hollywood hills was too high for many and the Great Depression ended any hope of making money from the deal.  In 1933, the syndicate dissolved and the unsold land, including the Hollywoodland sign, became property of the M. H. Sherman Company.
Promotional photograph for
Hollywoodland, ca. 1923.
Sherman Library Collections 

Increasingly in disrepair, maintenance of the sign became a problem for Arnold Haskell, future founder of Sherman Library & Gardens –  and after Sherman’s death in 1932 – president of M. H. Sherman Company. The sign was expensive to maintain, but it was not generating any revenues. On September 19, 1936 the left most “O” in the sign fell down.  Two days later Haskell had a report detailing the structural problems of the sign – letter by letter.  But the cost was too high considering how few lots were selling.  By 1938 the condition had worsened to the extent that Hollywood Citizen-News published a letter from a reader who wrote, “I wish that during the Easter vacation some of the public-spirited Hollywood High School students would get [the] necessary equipment and go up to the ‘HOLLYWOODLAND’ sign on Hollywood Mountain and replace two or three of the letters that have blown down.”  In early 1939, the company bowed to public pressure and repaired the sign at a cost of $2,177.43.  But the company continued to look for ways to rid itself of the sign – even negotiating, but never signing – a deal with the producers of the film Wilson to use the sign’s superstructure to mount advertising for the movie’s opening, in return for removing the entire sign afterward. The solution finally came in the form of a gift. In 1945, the M. H. Sherman Company donated 455 acres, including the sign, to the Los Angeles Department of Parks and Recreation, as an addition to Griffith Park.  Later the Hollywood Chamber of Commerce paid to repair the sign and remove the “LAND” portion.

Founding Sherman Library & Gardens

Paul Wormser - Wednesday, September 06, 2017

Sherman Library & Gardens’ origins can be traced to one day in April 1914. On that day, Moses Hazeltine Sherman approached Arnold Haskell,  a young man working as a clerk at the reception desk of the Mission Inn in Riverside, with a job offer.  Years later Haskell recalled, “The General [Sherman] came in and he said, ‘Arnold, do you want to work for me?’ I said, ‘Yes, I do.’ He said, ‘Well, the train leaves for Los Angeles at four o'clock this afternoon.’ Years later, Arnold Haskell would honor the man who hired him by naming Sherman Library & Gardens after him.


A Young Arnold Haskell at work, ca. 1920
Sherman Library 

In 1914 when Sherman hired Haskell, Sherman was a highly successful and well-known businessman.  More than forty years before, as a young man, Sherman had moved to the Arizona Territory to teach school.  In the coming years, he would rise in prominence, becoming the first Superintendent of Public Instruction.  Later, he was appointed, and then re-elected, Adjutant General of Arizona, in charge of the territorial militia – thus earning the honorary title “General.” He also manifested a talent for finance and investment – in mines and real estate initially.  He eventually owned the Phoenix Street Railway, had a controlling interest in the Phoenix Water Company and owned considerable land in Phoenix, even donating the land on which sits the State Capital building.  By 1890 he was looking to expand his investments.  He chose Los Angeles.

In Los Angeles, Sherman began acquiring street railroads to created the first network of electric street cars, the Los Angeles Consolidated Electric Railway. He then built the first interurban in Southern California, the Los Angeles and Pasadena Railway.  While building his railroads and investing in land, Sherman was also making friends.  Most prominent among these were Harrison Grey Otis, founder of the Los Angeles Times; Harry Chandler, Otis’s son-in-law and publisher of the Times; Otto F. Brant, a founder of Title Insurance and Trust Company; and Hobart Whitley, sometimes known as the “Father of Hollywood.”  In 1909, these men formed the Los Angeles Suburban Homes Company, which acquired 47,500 acres of farmland in the San Fernando Valley and subdivided it following the arrival of water through the Los Angeles Aqueduct, creating Canoga Park, Van Nuys and Encino in the process. In 1912, members of this same group purchased the Tejon Ranch, which encompassed more than 275,000 acres at the top of Tejon Pass.

Thus, when Arnold Haskell signed on with Sherman, he was agreeing to work for one of the most prominent and successful businessmen in Los Angeles.  When Sherman hired Haskell, there was no negotiation over salary or responsibilities.  Haskell did not know what his duties would be or how much he would be paid.  He could not have known that he would stay in the Sherman’s employ for the next eighteen years, becoming his almost constant companion, closest confidant and eventual successor to his business interests.

Haskell became Sherman’s personal secretary, working with him on every aspect of his businesses.  In the years that Haskell worked for Sherman, he continued to launch new enterprises.  For example, Sherman became one of the founders of the Los Angeles Steamship Company, a passenger line with routes to San Francisco and Honolulu. He also created a partnership that developed Hollywoodland, and subdivided 1,000 acres of his San Fernando Valley holdings to create Sherman Oaks.

Sherman passed away in 1932. The last couple of years of his life, in ill health, he retreated to a home on Bay Island, in Newport Harbor.  Sherman’s illness and the effects of the Great Depression left his estate deeply in debt, despite valuable land holdings.  In the first few years following Sherman’s death, Arnold Haskell worked with extraordinary tenacity and intelligence as trustee of the estate and president of the M. H. Sherman Company to turn around the investments. Haskell then focused on expanding his real estate portfolio, acquiring prime land in Los Angles, Newport Beach and Dana Point.  By 1951, he felt he was successful enough to launch a new career as a philanthropist.  With Sherman’s two daughters – Lucy and Hazeltine –  Haskell created the Sherman Foundation. 

In its first 15 years the Foundation functioned as a grant-making institution, but that would eventually change.  In 1955, Haskell moved his business offices from Los Angeles to Corona del Mar after buying a parcel of land at the corner of Coast Highway and Dahlia from Norman’s Nursery.  The lot had a small adobe house dating from the late 1930s which Haskell used as an office.  In 1956 he added additional office space.  Both the adobe and office addition are now occupied by Sherman Library.

Arnold Haskell then started buying more property on the same block. He had to do this quietly to  keep the sellers from raising prices.  It took him more than a decade to acquire the land that is now Sherman Library & Gardens.  Having done so, the Sherman Foundation shifted its focus from grants to creating to creating a research library and public gardens. Planning began in earnest 50 years ago.  It was not until 1974 that construction of Sherman Library & Gardens was complete

So why did Arnold Haskell name Sherman Library & Gardens after his mentor?  In 1974, Haskell said:

[Sherman] was a heck of a good teacher, too; he taught me everything I know about business …  But one thing the General wanted: he wanted his name to be perpetuated. Now I never cared for that. In 1951, when I founded the Foundation, the attorneys wanted me to call it the Arnold Haskell Foundation, because they felt that, being alive, I could accomplish more with it than if it was named after somebody that nobody knew. But I thought, well, this is the opportunity… to carry on the General's name.


Arnold Haskell and founding Gardens Director Wade Roberts cutting the ribbon at the opening of the South Gate, 1972
Sherman Library